Philosophy is a subversive activity.

". . . reason accepts no authority above itself and is necessarily subversive."
Allan Bloom, The Closing of the
American Mind
(1987), p. 258.


"The autonomous man is of necessity an anarchist." Robert Paul Wolff, "On Violence,"
The Journal of Philosophy 66 (1969), p. 608.



Digital Text International

The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances is a political agreement signed in Budapest, Hungary on 5 December 1994, providing security assurances by its signatories relating to Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The Memorandum was originally signed by three nuclear-powers, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom. China and France later gave individual statements of assurance as well.

The memorandum included security assurances against threats or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine as well as those of Belarus and Kazakhstan. As a result Ukraine gave up the world's third largest nuclear weapons stockpile between 1994 and 1996.

Russia is attacking Ukraine!

United States of America, United Kingdom, China, France where are you?

Andrew Chrucky


Philosophical Topics Online Papers and Books Political Topics
Anarchism! Secession! Land to the Landless
and to the Jobless!



Switzerland is the most democratic country in the world
  1. People have the right to a referendum and initiative at various levels of government: federal, cantonal and municipal.
  2. Citizens vote on changes to the constitution.
  3. Federal administration is in the hands of SEVEN individuals, and not ONE person (a president, king, or prime minister) with her or his whims.

The Swiss equivalent of a President: a Federal Council -- an idea for Ukraine

Next Step for Ukraine

Andrew Chrucky
Dec. 21, 2013

The current protests in Kyiv were sparked by President Yanukovich's refusal to sign the Euro-trade agreement. Whether such an agreement was good or not is a moot point. It represented a rejection of Europe, and the dream of many Ukrainians to have a visa-free opportunity to travel through Europe. But such a rejection by Yanukovich also indicated a pro-Russian inclination, which is anathema for many Ukrainians. It also triggered the hostility which many Ukrainians have -- especially in the Western Ukraine -- to Yanukovich as a person. He is seen as a Mafia godfather who with his cronies, such as the Prime Minister Azarov, is looting Ukraine, and who, in a contemptible way, has imprisoned Yulia Tymoshenko in order to eliminate her as a presidential rival in 2015. Now he has signed an agreement with President Putin of Russia, which includes an $15 billion bond sale and the reduction of Russian gas prices by a third. What Ukraine has to give in return is a secret. The protests are continuing -- but to what end?

What is the opposition proposing? The opposition is led by three party leaders Oleh Tyahnybok, Vitali Klitschko, and Arseniy Yatsenyuk. They wanted Yanukovich to sign the Euro-trade agreement, to step-down as President, and to call for snap elections. What happened to the demand for the release of Yulia Tymoshenko!?? What these three ambitious politicians want is to become the next president of Ukraine -- Klitschko has already announced his candidacy. We have seen what happened with a change of presidents following the Orange Revolution -- more of the same!

What Ukraine needs is a total restructuring -- a revamping of its Constitution. Because it is divided into a Ukrainian-speaking West and Russian-speaking South and East, it has to create a federated state on the model of Switzerland, in which there are four linguistic groups. Let each Oblast become a Canton, with its own constitution. Decentralize the government so that the cities and villages have more home-rule, and introduce a government by councils and not by individuals. Follow the Swiss model, and introduce national referendums and initiatives for changing the constitution. And above all, instead of a President have a Federal Council consisting of seven or so individuals (including Oleh Lyashko), like in Switzerland.

Why don't any of the political leaders, including Yulia Tymoshenko, make such democratic proposals?

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