1 Roy M. Robbins, "Horace Greeley: Land Reform and Unemployment, 1837-1862," Agricultural History, VII, 18 (January, 1933).

2 Ibid., VII, 25. Further documentation of Greeley's agrarianism is provided by Roland Van Zandt in "Horace Greeley, Agrarian Exponent of American Idealism," Rural Sociology, XIII, [411]-419 (December, 1948).

3 New York Tribune, February 18, 1854. Quoted by Carter Goodrich and Sol Davison, "The Wage-Earner in the Westward Movement. I. The Statement of the Problem," Political Science Quarterly, i . 179-180 (June, 1935).

4 The Frontier in American History (New York, 1920), p. 62.

5 Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series. America and West Indies, March, 1720, to December 1721, p. 473.

6. Ibid., Volume for 1731, p. 90.

7 John Bartram, Observations on the Inhabitants, Climate, Soil . . . and Other Matters Worthy of Notice. Made by Mr. John Bartram, in his Travels from Pensilvania to Onondago, Oswego and the Lake Ontario (London, 1751), p. v.

8 Benjamin Franklin, Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Writings, ed. Albert H. Smyth, III, 65.

9 The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick, 39 vols. (Washington, 1931-1944), XXVIII, 206.

10 Writings, ed. Andrew A. Lipscomb, 20 vols. (Washington, 1903-1904), XI, 55. To "Mr. Lithson," Washington, January 4, 1805.

11 21 Cong., 1 Sess. Register of Debates in Congress, VI, 34 (January 19, 1830).

12 Ibid., VI, 24 (January 18, 1830).

13 32 Cong., 1 Sess. Congressional Globe, Appendix, p. 737 (April 22, 1852).

14 Capital. A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (London, 1912), pp. 794-800.

15 Helene S. Zahler, Eastern Workingmen and National Land Policy, pp. 10, 23-24, 29, etc.

16 John R. Commons, "Horace Greeley and the Working Class Origins of the Republican Party," Political Science Quarterly, XXIV, 484 (September, 1909).

17 Quoted from the New York Tribune, November 7, 1859, in 1 DeBow's Review, XXVIII, 253n. (March, 1860).

18 36 Cong., 1 Sess. Congressional Globe, p. 1631 (April 10, 1860).

19 Representative recent articles:

(1) Contra the safety-valve theory:
Carter Goodrich and Sol Davison, "The Wage-Earner in the Westward Movement. I. The Statement of the Problem," Political Science Quarterly, L, 161-185 (June, 1935);
"II. The Question and the Sources," ibid., LI, 61-116 (March, 1936);
Fred A. Shannon, "The Homestead Act and the Labor Surplus," American Historical Review, XLI, 637-651 (June, 1936);
Clarence H. Danhof, "Farm-Making Costs and the 'Safety Valve': 1850-60," Journal of Political Economy, XLIX, 317-359 (June, 1941).
(2) Pro the safety-valve theory:
Joseph Schafer, "Some Facts Bearing on the Safety-Valve Theory," Wisconsin Magazine of History, XX, 216-232 (December, 1936);
"Concerning the Frontier as a Safety Valve," Political Science Quarterly, LII, 407-420 (September, 1937);
"Was the West a Safety Valve for Labor?" Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XXIV, 299-314 (December, 1937).
Fred A. Shannon seems to me to have established the falsity of the idea in his most recent article on the subject, "A Post Mortem on the Labor-Safety-Valve Theory," Agricultural History, XIX, 31-37 (January, 1945).

20 Writings, ed. Albert H. Smyth, III. 65.

21 Joseph J. Spengler, "Population Doctrines in the United States. I. Anti-Malthusianism," Journal of Political Economy, XLI, 433-467 (August, 1933); "II. Malthusianism," XLI, 639-672 (October, 1933).

22 The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. H. A. Washington, 9 vols. (Washington. 1853-1854), II, 332.

23 "An Address, on the Influence of the Federative Republican System of Government upon Literature and the Development of Character. Prepared to be Delivered before the Historical and Philosophical Society of Virginia," Southern Literary Messenger, II, 277 (March, 1836).

24 Cannibals All! or Slaves without Masters (Richmond, 1857), p. 61.

25 "R. E. C," "The Problem of Free Society," Southern Literary Messenger, XXVII, 93-94 (August, 1858).

26 Quoted in Richard C. Beatty, Lord Macaulay, Victorian Liberal (Norman, Oklahoma, 1938), pp. 366-369. The letter was addressed to R. S. Randall.

27 Clarel. A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land, 2 vols. (New York, 1876), II, 524-527. The allusion to the god Terminus is apparently a reminiscence of Benton's speech on the occupation of Oregon in 1825: ". . . the ridge of the Rocky mountains may be named without offence, as presenting a convenient, natural, and everlasting boundary. Along the back of this ridge, the western limit of this republic should be drawn, and the statue of the fabled god, Terminus, should be raised upon its highest peak, never to be thrown down" (18 Cong., 2 Sess. Register of Debates in Congress, I, 712. Senate, March 1, 1825).