Philosophy of Religion

Arguments for the Existence of God (at The Secular Web)

Mortimer J. Adler

  • How to Think About God: A Guide for the 20th-Century Pagan (1980).
  • Truth in Religion: The Plurality of Religions and the Unity of Truth (1990).

    William P. Alston

  • "The Ontological Argument Revisited," The Philosophical Review 69 (1960): 452-74.
  • "Tillich's Conception of a Religious Symbol," in Religious Experience and Truth, ed. Sidney Hook (New York University Press, 1961).
  • "The Elucidation of Religious Statements," in The Hartshorne Festschrift: Process and Divinity, eds., William Reese and Eugene Freeman (Open Court, 1964): 429-443.
  • Divine Nature and Human Language: Essays in Philosophical Theology (Cornell University Press, 1989).
  • Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience (Cornell University Press, 1991).
  • "The Experiential Basis of Theism"


  • Proslogion

    Thomas Aquinas

  • Summa Contra Gentiles (1259-1264)
  • Summa Theologica (1265-1273)
    -- Whether God Exists?

    Robert Audi

  • (and William Wainwright,eds.) Rationality, Belief, and Moral Commitment (Cornell University Press, 1986).

    John Ballie

  • The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought (Columbia University Press, 1956).

    J. Barnes

  • The Ontological Argument (Macmillan, 1972).

    Richard Bernstein

  • "Responce to Pope John Paul II's encyclical letter, Fides et Ratio," Christianity Online (July/Aug., 1999).

    William Blackstone

  • The Problem of Religious Knowledge (Prentice-Hall, 1963),

    Brand Blanshard

  • Reason and Belief (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1974).

    J. M. Bochenski The Logic of Religion (New York University Press, 1965).

    David Braine

  • The Reality of Time and the Existence of God: The Project of Proving God's Existence (Clarendon Press, 1988).

    R. B. Braithwaite

  • An Empiricist's View of the Nature of Religious Belief (Cambridge University Press, 1955).

    C. D. Broad

  • "Hume's Theory of the Credibility of Miracles," Proc. Aristotelian Soc. 17 (1916-17): 77-94.
  • "The Validity of Belief in a Personal God," Hibbert Journal 24 (1925): 32-48. Reprinted in C. D. Broad, Religion, Philosophy and Psychical Research (Routledge & Keagan Paul, 1953).
  • "Arguments for the Existence of God," Journal of Theological Studies 40 (1939): 16-30; 156-67. Reprinted in C. D. Broad, Religion, Philosophy and Psychical Research (Routledge & Keagan Paul, 1953).
  • "The Present Relations of Science and Religion," Philosophy 14 (1939): 131-54. Reprinted in C. D. Broad, Religion, Philosophy and Psychical Research (Routledge & Keagan Paul, 1953).

    Ernest Brown

  • "Plantinga, Proper Basicality, and Fideism" (+ annotated bibliography)

    E. A. Burtt

  • Types of Religious Philosophy (Harper and Row, 1951).

    Joseph Butler

  • Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Nature. (1736).

    Cajetan (Thomas De Vio)

  • The Analogy of Names (1506).

    W. K. Clifford

  • "The Ethics of Belief" in Lectures and Essays (Macmillan, 1879)

    Morris R. Cohen

  • "The Dark Side of Religion" in Religion Today, a Challenging Enigma, ed. Arthur L. Swift, Jr. (1933). Revised version in Morris Cohen, The Faith of a Liberal (1946).

    Father F. C. Copleston and Bertrand Russell,

  • "A Debate on the Argument from Contingency," boadcast in 1948 on the Third Program of the British Broadcasting Corporation. Published in Humanitas (Manchester) and reprinted in Bertrand Russell, Why I Am Not a Christian (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1957). -- Audio

    James W.Cornman

  • Chapter Five: The Problem of Justifying Belief in God, in James W. Cornman, Keith Lehrer, George S. Pappas, Philosophical Problems and Arguments: An Introduction, 3d edition, 1982. [1st ed., 1968; 2d ed., 1974]

    William Lane Craig

  • The Kalam Cosmological Argument (Macmillan, 1979).
  • The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz (London: Macmillan, 1980).
  • "Creation and Big Bang Cosmology," Philosophia Naturalis 31 (1994): 217-224.
  • "A Response to Grünbaum on Creation and Big Bang Cosmology," Philosophia Naturalis 31 (1994): 237-249.
  • Reasonable Faith (Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books, 1994).
  • Articles -- Debates -- List of Publications

    Stephen T. Davis

  • Logic and The Nature of God (Eerdmans, 1983).

    Richard Dawkins The God Delusion, 2006. Reading of The God Delusion at Randolph-Macon Woman's College in Lynchburg, Virginia on October 23, 2006. -- video Root of All Evil? The God Delusion -- video (2006) The Root of All Evil? Part 2: The Virus of Faith -- video (2006) The God Delusion: The David Quinn & Richard Dawkins debate - The Ryan Tubridy Show (2006) -- audio

    Clement Dore

  • Theism (Reidel, 1984).

    C. J. Ducasse

  • A Philosophical Scrutiny of Religion (New York: Ronald Press, 1953).
  • A Critical Examination of the Belief in Life after Death (Thomas, 1961).

    Frederick Ferre

  • Language, Logic and God (Harper and Row, 1969).

    Nels Ferre

  • Evil and the Christian Faith (Harper and Row, 1947).

    J. N. Findlay

  • "Can God's Existence be Disproved?" Mind, April 1948.

    Branden Fitelson

  • (and Elliott Sober) "Plantinga's Probability Arguments Against Evolutionary Naturalism", Nov. 20, 1997.

    Antony Flew

  • (and Alasdair MacIntyre, ed.) New Essays in Philosophical Theology (Macmillan, 1955).
  • God and Philosophy (Harper and Row, 1961).
  • "The Presumption of Atheism," Canadian Journal of Philosophy 2 (1972): 29-46.
  • "Arguments to Design," (1996).

    Peter Forrest

  • God Without the Supernatural: A Defense of Scientific Theism (Cornell University Press, 1996).
  • "Epistemology of Religion," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

    Sigmund Freud

  • The Future of an Illusion (Anchor Books, 1964).

    Richard M. Gale

  • On the Nature and Existence of God (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

    Peter Geach

  • God and the Soul (Routledge, 1969).
  • Providence and God (Cambridege University Press, 1977).

    Douglas R. Geivett

  • (and Brendan Sweetman, eds.) Contemporary Perspectives on Religion (Oxford University Press, 1992).

    Adolf Grünbaum

  • "The Pseudo-Problem in Physical Cosmology," Philosophy of Science, Vol. 56, No. 3, Sept. 1989, pp. 373-394.
  • "Pseudo-Creation of the Big Bang." Nature 344 (1990), pp. 821-822.
  • "Creation as a Pseudo-Explanation in Current Physical Cosmology," Erkenntnis 35 (1991), pp. 233-254.
  • "Some Comments on William Craig's "Creation and Big Bang Cosmology"," Philosophia Naturalis, Vol. 31, No. 2 (1994), pp. 225-236.
  • "Theological Misinterpretation of Current Physical Cosmology," Philo, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 15-34, Spring-Summer 1998.

    Gary Gutting

  • Religious Belief and Religious Skepticism (University of Notre Dame Press, 1982).

    Errol Harris

  • Atheism and Theism (Tulane Studies in Philosophy, vol. 26, 1977).

    Charles Hartshorne

  • Anselm's Discovery (Open Court, 1965).
  • The Logic of Perfection, and Other Essays in Neoclassical Metaphysics (Open Court Publishing Company, 1991).

    William Hasker

  • God, Time, and Knowledge (Cornell Univ. Press, 1989).

    Paul Helm

  • Eternal God: A Study of God Without Time (Clarendon Press, 1988).

    Ronald Hepburn

  • Christianity and Paradox (C. A. Watts, 1958).

    John Hick

  • Faith and Knowledge (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1957).
  • Philosophy of Religion (Prentice-Hall, 1963; 3rd edition, 1983).
  • (ed.) The Existence of God (Macmillan, 1964).
  • (ed.) Classical and Contemporary Readings in the Philosophy of Religion (Prentice-Hall, 1964).
  • Evil and the God of Love (Harper and Row, 1966; revised, 1978).
  • (ed. and Arthur C. McGill) The Many-Faced Argument (Macmillan, 1967).
  • Arguments for the Existence of God (Herder and Herder, 1971).
  • God and the Universe of Faiths (St. Martin's Press, 1973).
  • Problems of Religious Pluralism (St. Martin's Press, 1985).
  • An Interpretation of Religion (Macmillan, 1989).

    Sidney Hook

  • "The Quest for "Being"," The Journal of Philosophy (1953). Reprinted in Sidney Hook, The Quest for Being (Dell Publishing Co., 1963), pp. 143-171.
  • "Modern Knowledge and the Concept of God," Commentary (1960). Reprinted in Sidney Hook, The Quest for Being (Dell Publishing Co., 1963), pp. 115-135.

    David Hume

  • Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779).

    Peter Van Inwagen

  • Metaphysics (Oxford, 1993).
  • God Knowledge & and Mystery: Essays in Philosophical Theology (Cornell Univ Press, 1995)
  • "Skeptical of the Skeptics": a review of The Historical Christ and the Jesus of Faith by C. Stephen Evans

    William James

  • "The Will to Believe" in The Will to Believe and other Essays in Popular Philosophy (1897).
  • The Varieties of Religious Experience: a Study in Human Nature (New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1902).

    John Paul II (Pope)

  • Fides et Ratio (encyclical, Sept. 14, 1998)

    B. C. Johnson

  • The Atheist Debater's Handbook (Prometheus Books, 1981).

    Immanuel Kant

  • Critique of Pure Reason (trans. Norman Kemp Smith) (1781) -- Chapter III. The Ideal of Pure Reason [485]
  • Religion within the Bounds of Mere Reason (1793).

    Steven Katz

  • (ed.) Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis (Oxford University Press, 1978).

    Walter Kaufmann

  • Critique of Religion and Philosophy (1958).

    J. Kellenberger

  • Religious Discovery, Faith and Knowledge (Prentice-Hall, 1972).

    Anthony Kenny

  • The Five Ways: St. Thomas Aquinas' Proofs of God's Existence (Schocken Books, 1969).
  • The God of the Philosophers (Oxford Univ. Press, 1979).

    Hans Küng

  • Existiert Gott? (Piper-Verlag, 1978). Does God Exist? (Collins, 1980).

    Pope Leo XIII

  • Ćterni Patris (Encyclical Letter, August 4, 1879)

    C. S. Lewis

  • Miracles (Macmillan, 1963).

    H. D. Lewis

  • Our Experience of God (Allen and Unwin, 1959).

    J. L. Mackie

  • The Miracle of Theism: Arguments for and Against the Existence of God, (Oxford Univ Press, 1983).

    Norman Malcolm

  • "Anselm's Ontological Argument," The Philosophical Review 69 (1960): 41-62.
  • "The Groundlessness of Belief," in Reason and Religion, ed. Stuart C. Brown (Cornell University Press, 1977).

    C. B. Martin

  • Religious Belief (Cornell, 1959).

    Michael Martin

  • Atheism: A Philosophical Justification (Temple Univ Press, 1990).
  • "The Transcendental Argument for the Nonexistence of God," The New Zealand Rationalist & Humanist (Autumn 1996). -- See the Martin-Frame Debate

    R. M. Martin

  • Primordiality, Science, and Value (State University of New York Press, 1980).

    E. L. Mascall

  • Existence and Analogy (Longman, 1949).

    Terry Richard Mathis

  • Against John Hick: An Examination of His Philosophy of Religion (University Press of America, 1985).

    Wallace I. Matson

  • The Existence of God (Cornell, 1965).

    George Mavrodes

  • Belief in God (Random House, 1970).
  • Revelation in Religion (Temple University Press, 1988).

    John McTaggart

  • Some Dogmas of Religion (1906). [ pdf file]

    John Stuart Mill

  • Three Essay on Religion (1875). [pdf file]
  • On Nature

    Basil Mitchell

  • (ed.) The Philosophy of Religion (Oxford University Press, 1971).
  • The Justification of Religion (Macmillan, 1973).

    Nancey Murphy

  • Theology in an Age of Scientific Reasoning (Cornell University Press, 1990).

    George Nakhnikian

  • An Introduction to Philosophy (Alfred A. Knopf, 1967). (see pp. 273-86 on James' "Will to Believe")

    Kai Nielsen

  • On Speaking of God," Theoria 28 (1962).
  • "Can Faith Validate God-talk?" Theology Today (July, 1963).
  • "The Primacy of Philosophical Theology," Theology Today (July, 1970).
  • Contemporary Critiques of Religion (New York: Herder & Herder, 1971).
  • "Does God Esit? Reflections on Disbelief," Free Inquiry I (Spring, 1981): 21-26.
  • Philosophy & Atheism: In Defense of Atheism (Buffalo: NY: Prometheus, 1985).
  • Ethics Without God, Second edition (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1989).
  • God, Scepticism, and Modernity (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1989).
  • God and the Grounding of Morality (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1991).

    Graham Oppy

  • Ontological Argument & Belief in God (1995).
  • "Ontological Arguments" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    Rudolf Otto

  • The Idea of the Holy (Oxford Univ. Press, 1958).

    William Paley (1743-1805)

  • Natural Theology; or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity collected from the Appearances of Nature (1802).

    Keith M. Parsons

  • God and the Burden of Proof: Plantinga, Swinburne, and the Analytic Defense of Theism (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1989).

    Blaise Pascal

  • Pensées (Thoughts) (1660).

    Terence Penelhum

  • Survival and Disembodied Existence (Routledge, 1970).
  • Religion and Rationality (Random House, 1971).
  • Immortality (Wadsworth, 1973).

    D. Z. Phillips

  • Faith and Philosophical Enquiry (Routledge, 1970).
  • Religion without Explanation (Basil Blackwell, 1976).

    Nelson Pike

  • God and Timelessness (Schocken Books, 1970).

    Alvin Plantinga,

  • God and Other Minds: A Study of the Rational Justification of Belief in God (Cornell Univ Pr., 1967; reprint 1990).
  • The Nature of Necessity (1974).
  • God, Freedom, and Evil (Eerdmans, 1974).
  • "Is Belief in God Properly Basic," Noûs 15 (1981).
  • (and Nicholas Wolterstorff, eds.) Faith and Rationality (University of Notre Dame Press, 1983).
  • "Intellectual Sophistication and Basic Belief in God," Faith and Philosophy 3 (1986): 306-12.
  • Warrant and Proper Function (Oxford Univ Press, 1993).
  • Warrant: The Current Debate (1993).
  • The Analytic Theist : A Collection of Alvin Plantinga's Work in Philosophy of Religion, ed. James F. Sennett (Wm B Eerdmans Pub Co., 1998).
  • "Theism, Atheism, and Rationality"
  • "Methodological Naturalism?"
  • "Darwin, Mind and Meaning"
  • "Responce to Pope John Paul II's encyclical letter, Fides et Ratio," Christianity Online (July/Aug., 1999).

    Louis Pojman

  • (ed.) Philosophy of Religion (Wadsworth, 1987).

    V. Preller

  • Divine Science and the Science of God (Princeton, 1968).

    Philip Quinn

  • "In Search of the Foundations of Theism," Faith and Philosophy 2 (1985): 469-86.

    J. H. Randall, Jr.

  • The Role of Knowledge in Western Religion (Beacon Press, 1958).

    Bruce Reichenbach

  • Evil and A Good God (Fordham University Press, 1982).

    Nicholas Rescher

  • Pascal's Wager: A Study of Practical Reasoning in Philosophical Theology (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985).

    James F. Ross

  • Philosophical Theology (Bobbs-Merrill, 1969).
  • Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (Macmillan, 1969).

    William L. Rowe

  • The Cosmological Argument (Princeton Univ. Press, 1975).
  • Philosophy of Religion: An Introduction (Wadsworth, 1978; 2nd ed., 1993).

    Bertrand Russell and Father F. C. Copleston

  • "A Debate on the Argument from Contingency," boadcast in 1948 on the Third Program of the British Broadcasting Corporation. Published in Humanitas (Manchester) and reprinted in Bertrand Russell, Why I Am Not a Christian (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1957).

    Jan Salamucha

  • "The Proof 'ex motu' for the existence of God," New Scholasticism 31 (1958).

    George Schlesinger

  • Religion and Scientific Method (Reidel, 1977).

    Paul F. Schmidth

  • Religious Knowledge (The Free Press, 1961).

    J. Shaffer

  • "Existence, Predication and the Ontological Argument," Mind 71 (1962): 307-25.

    E. Sillem

  • Ways of Thinking about God (Longman Todd, 1962),

    Ninian Smart

  • Reasons and Faiths (Routledge, 1958).

    Huston Smith

  • "Do Drugs Have Religious Import?" The Journal of Philosophy 61 (1964): 517-530.

    Elliott Sober

  • (and Branden Fitelson) "Plantinga's Probability Arguments Against Evolutionary Naturalism", Nov. 20, 1997.

    Walter Stace

  • Mysticism and Philosophy (J. B. Lippincot, 1960).

    Richard G. Swinburne

  • "Miracles," The Philosophical Quarterly 18 (1968): 320-28.
  • The Coherence of Theism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977).
  • The Existence of God (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979).
  • Faith and Reason (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981).
  • Is There a God? (Oxford University Press, 1997).
  • "The Justification of Theism" 11/20/97

    A. E. Taylor

  • "Arguments for the Existence of God," (From Ch. 5, "Some Metaphysical Implications of Ethics and Religion", of A. E. Taylor's The Elements of Metaphysics (1903).)
  • Does God Exist? (Macmillan, 1945).

    F. R. Tennant

  • Philosophical Theology (Cambridge University Press, 1928).
  • The Nature of Belief (The Centenary Press, 1943).

    George F. Thomas

  • Philosophy and Religious Belief (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970).

    Paul Tillich

  • Systematic Theology (Chicago University Press, 1951).
  • "Religious Symbols and our Knowledge of God," The Christian Scholar (September, 1955).
  • Biblical Religion and the Search for Ultimate Reality (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1955).
  • Dynamics of Faith (Harper and Row, 1957).

    William Wainright

  • Mysticism: A Study of Its Nature, Cognitive Value and Moral Implications (Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1981).

    Henry Nelson Wieman

  • The Source of Human Good (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1946).
  • Man's Ultimate Commitment (Souther Illinois University Press, 1958).

    Edward R. Wierenga

  • The Nature of God: An Inquiry into Divine Attributes (Cornell, 1989).

    John Wisdom

  • "Gods", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (1944-45).

    L. Wittgenstein

  • Lectures and Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology, and Religious Belief, ed. C. Barnett (Basil Blackwell, 1966).

    Nicholas Wolterstorff

  • "God Everlasting," in God and the Good, ed. Orlebeke and Smedes (1975).
  • Reason within the Bounds of Religion (Eerdmans, 1976).
  • Divine Discourse: Philosophical Reflections on the Claim that God Speaks. (Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  • "Responce to Pope John Paul II's encyclical letter, Fides et Ratio," Christianity Online (July/Aug., 1999).

    Stephen J. Wykstra

  • "Toward a Sensible Evidentialism: On the Notion of 'Needing Evidence'," in W. L. Rowe and W. J. Wainwright, eds., Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings, 2nd edition; Harper Brace Jovanovich, 1989): 426-37.

    Keith Yandell

  • Christianity and Philosophy (Eerdmans, 1984).

    Linda Zagzebski

  • (ed.) Rational Faith: Catholic Responses to Reformed Epistemology (University of Notre Dame, 1993).