Philosophy of Knowledge (Epistemology)

Marjorie A. Clay (ed.), Teaching Theory of Knowledge (Council of Philosophical Studies, 1986).

R. I. Aaron

  • Knowing and the Function of Reason (1970).

    Robert Ackerman

  • Belief and Knowledge (1972).

    William P. Alston

  • "Varieties of Privileged Access," American Philosophical Quarterly 8 (1971): 223-241.
  • "Two Types of Foundationalism," Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976): 165-185.
  • "What's Wrong with Immediate Knowledge?" Synthese 55 (1983): 73-96.
  • Epistemic Justification: Essays in the Theory of Knowledge (1989). -- at Amazon
  • The Reliability of Sense Perception (Cornell Univ Press, 1996).

    Robert R. Ammerman

  • (and Marcus G. Singer, eds.) Belief, Knowledge and Truth: Readings in the Theory of Knowledge (1970).

    David Armstrong

  • Belief, Truth and Knowledge (1973).

    Robert Audi

  • Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge (Routledge, 1998).

    Bruce Aune

  • Knowledge, Mind, and Nature: An Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge and the Philosophy of Mind (Random House, 1967).

    A. J. Ayer

  • The Problem of Knowledge (Penguin, 1956).
  • Russell and Moore: The Analytical Heritage (1971).

    George Berkeley Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous

    Brand Blanshard

  • The Nature of Thought, 2 vols. (Muirhead Library of Philosophy, 1939).
  • Reason and Analysis (London: Allen & Unwin, 1962).

    Laurence Bonjour

  • "Can Empirical Knowledge Have a Foundation?" American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (Jan. 1978): 1-13.
  • "Externalist Theories of Empirical Knowledge." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5 (1980): 53-73.
  • Structure of Empirical Knowledge (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985).
  • In Defense of Pure Reason: A Rationalist Account of a Priori Justification (Cambridge University Press, 1997).

    C. D. Broad

  • Scientific Thought (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1923).
  • An Examination of McTaggart's Philosophy vol. I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1933).
  • "Normal Cognition, Clairvoyance, and Telepathy," Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 43, October 1935, pp. 397-438. Presidential Address. Read May 1, 1935.
  • An Examination of McTaggart's Philosophy vol. II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1938).

    Panyot Butchvarov

  • The Concept of Knowledge (1970).

    Nicholas Capaldi

  • Human Knowledge (1969).

    Roderick Chisholm

  • Perceiving: A Philosophical Study (Cornell University Press, 1957).
  • (ed.) Realism and the Background of Phenomenology (Free Press, 1961).
  • (and Robert Swartz, eds.) Empirical Knowledge (1973).
  • "A Version of Foundationalism," Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5 (1980): 543-564.
  • Theory of Knowledge (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966; 2d ed. 1976; 3d ed. 1989).
  • (and Ernest Sosa, ed.) Essays on the Philosophy of Roderick Chisholm (Rodopi, ).

    Romane Clark

  • "Sensuous Judgments." N˘us 7 (1973): 45-56.
  • "The Sensuous Content of Perception," in Action, Knowledge and Reality, edited by Hector-Neri Casta˝eda (Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1975).
  • "Sensibility and Understanding: The Given of Wilfrid Sellars," The Monist 65 (1982): 350-364.

    L. Jonathan Cohen

  • An Essay on Belief and Acceptance (Clarendon Press, 1995).

    James Cornman

  • Skepticism, Justification and Explanation (1980).

    Jonathan Dancy

  • An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology (Blackwell, 1986).
  • (ed. and Ernest Sosa) A Companion to Epistemology (Blackwell, 1994).

    Arthur C. Danto

  • Analytical Philosophy of Knowledge (1968).

    C. F. Delaney

  • "Theory of Knowledge," in The Synoptic Vision: Essays on the Philosophy of Wilfrid Sellars, edited by C. F. Delaney and others (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1977).
  • "Basic Propositions, Empiricism and Science," in The Philosophy of Wilfrid Sellars: Queries and Extensions, edited by Joseph Pitt (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1978).

    Rene Descartes

  • Discourse on Method
  • Meditations

    Fred Dretske

  • Seeing and Knowing (1969).

    Elizabeth R. Eames

  • Bertrand Russell's Theory of Knolwdge (1969).

    Herbert Feigl

  • (and Wilfrid Sellars, eds.) Readings in Philosophical Analysis (1949).

    Paul Feyerabend

  • Against Method (1975).

    Roderick Firth

  • "Coherence, Certainty, and Epistemic Priority," Journal of Philosophy 66 (1964): 545-57. Reprinted in New Readings in Philosophical Analysis, ed. H. Feigl, W. Sellars and K. Lehrer (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972).
  • In Defense of Radical Empiricalism : Essays and Lectures, ed. John Troyer (Rowman & Littlefield, 1998).

    Robert J. Fogelin

  • Evidence and Meaning (1967).

    Richard Foley

  • The Theory of Epistemic Rationality (Harvard Univ Press, 1987).

    Lawrence Foster

  • (and J. W. Swanson, eds.) Theory and Experience (1970).

    Edmund L. Gettier

  • "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?" Analysis 23 (1963): 121-123. Reprinted in New Readings in Philosophical Analysis, ed. H. Feigl, W. Sellars and K. Lehrer (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972).

    Carl Ginet

  • Knowledge, Perception and Memory (1975).

    Alan H. Goldman

  • Empirical Knowledge (University of California Press, 1991).

    Alvin I. Goldman

  • Epistemology and Cognition Harvard University Press, 1988).

    H. P. Grice

  • "The Causal Theory of Perception," in Perceiving, Sensing, and Knowing, edited by R. J. Swartz (New York: Anchor, 1965).

    A. P. Griffiths

  • (ed.) Knowledge and Belief (1967).

    D. W. Hamlyn

  • The Theory of Knowledge (Doubleday, 1971).

    Gilbert Harman

  • Thought (1972).

    Jaakko Hintikka

  • Knowledge and Belief (1962).

    John Hospers

  • Introduction to Philosophical Analysis (1953).

    David Hume

  • Treatise of Human Nature
  • Inquiry into the Human Understanding

    Frank Jackson

  • "On the Adverbial Analysis of Visual Experience," Metaphilosophy 6 (1975): 127-135.
  • Perception: A Representative Theory (London: Cambridge University Press, 1977).

    Oliver Johnson

  • The Problem of Knowledge (1974).
  • Skepticism and Cognitivism (1978).

    John Kekes

  • A Justification of Rationality (1976).

    Tadeusz Kotarbinski

  • Gnosiology: The Scientific Approach to the Theory of Knowledge, Translated by Olgierd Wojtasiewicz (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1966).

    Charles Landesman

  • (ed.) The Foundations of Knowledge (1970).

    Keith Lehrer

  • Knowledge (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974).
  • (ed.) Analysis and Metaphysics (1975).
  • Theory of Knowledge (Westview Press, 1990).

    Clarence Irving Lewis

  • "The Pragmatic Conception of the a Priori, " The Journal of Philosophy 20, 1923. Reprinted in Readings in Philosophical Analysis, ed. H. Feigl and W. Sellars (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1949).
  • Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge (Scribner's, 1929).
  • An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation (Open Court, 1946).

    Don Locke

  • Perception and Our Knowledge of the External World (1967).

    Arthur Oncken Lovejoy

  • Revolt Against Dualism (Chicago and New York, 1930).

    J. L. Mackie

  • Problems from Locke (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976).

    Norman Malcolm

  • Knowledge and Certainty (1963).

    Joseph Margolis

  • Pragmatism Without Foundations: Reconciling Realism and Relativism (1986).
  • Science Without Unity: Reconciling the Human and Natural Sciences (1987).
  • The Truth About Relativism (1991).
  • Historied Thought, Constructed World: A Conceptual Primer for the Turn of the Millennium (Univ. of California Press, 1995).

    R. G. Meyers

  • "Sellars' Rejection of Foundations," Philosophical Studies 39 (1982): 61-78.

    William Pepperell Montague

  • The Ways of Knowing, or The Methods of Philosophy (1925).

    G. E. Moore

  • Some Main Problems of Philosophy (1953).

    Adam Morton

  • A Guide Through the Theory of Knowledge (Dickenson, 1977).

    C. W. K. Mundle

  • Perception: Facts and Theories (London: Oxford University Press, 1971).

    Alan E. Musgrave

  • Common Sense, Science and Scepticism: A Historical Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

    Arne Naess

  • Skepticism (1969).

    George Nakhnikian

  • An Introduction to Philosophy (1967).

    George Pappas

  • (and Marshall Swain, eds.) Essays on Knowledge and Justification (1978).
  • (ed.) Justification and Knowledge: New Studies in Epistemology (Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1979). David Pears
  • What Is Knowledge? (Harper and Row, 1971).

    Jean Piaget

  • Genetic Epistemology, translated by Eleanor Duckworth (New York: W. W. Norton, 1970).
  • Psychology and Epistemology: Towards a Theory of Knowledge, translated by Arnold Rosin (New York: Viking Press, 1971).

    George Pitcher

  • A Theory of Perception (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971).

    Alvin Plantinga

  • Warrant and Proper Function (Oxford Univ Press, 1993).
  • Warrant in Contemporary Epistemology: Essays in Honor of Plantinga's Theory of Knowledge, ed. Alvin Plantinga and Jonathan L. Kvanvig (Rowman & Littlefield, 1996).


  • Theaetetus

    John L. Pollock

  • Knowledge and Justification (1974).
  • Contemporary Theories of Knowledge (Rowman ∓ Littlefield, 1987).

    Karl Raimund Popper

  • Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (Routledge, reprint, 1992).

    H. H. Price

  • Perception (London: Methuen & Co., 1932).
  • Belief (1969).

    W. V. O. Quine

  • Word and Object (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960).
  • "Two Dogmas of Empiricism," in From a Logical Point of View, 2d ed., rev. (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1961).
  • "Epistemology Relativized," in Ontological Relativity and Other Essays (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969).
  • (and J. Ullian) The Web of Belief (1978).

    Anthony Quinton

  • The Nature of Things (1973).

    Hans Reichenbach

  • Experience and Prediction (University of Chicago Press, 1938).

    Thomas Reid

  • Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense (1764)
  • Essay on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785)
  • Essay on the Active Powers of Man (1788)

    Nicholas Rescher

  • The Coherence Theory of Truth (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973).
  • Conceptual Idealism (1973).
  • Plausible Reasoning (1976).
  • Methodological Pragmatism (1977).
  • Scepticism: A Critical Reappraisal (1979).

    Richard Rorty

  • Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1979).
  • Consequences of Pragmatism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982).

    Jacob Joshua Ross

  • The Appeal to the Given (1970).

    Michael D. Roth

  • (and Leon Galis, eds.) Knowing (1970).

    Josiah Royce

  • The World and the Individual (New York, 1899).

    Bertrand Russell

  • Problems of Philosophy (1912).
  • Knowledge of the External World (1914).
  • Outline of Philosophy (1927).
  • An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth (George Allen & Unwin, 1940).
  • Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits (New York, 1948).
  • Logic and Knowledge: Essays 1901-1950, ed. R. C. Marsh (Macmillan, 1956).

    Kenneth M. Sayre

  • Belief and Knowledge: Mapping the Cognitive Landscape (Rowman & Littlefield, 1997).

    Israel Scheffler

  • Conditions of Knowledge (1965).
  • Science and Subjectivity (1969).

    John R. Searle

  • "Indeterminacy, Empiricism, and the First Person," The Journal of Philosophy 84, no. 3 (March 1987): 123-146.
  • The Construction of Social Reality (Free Press, 1997).

    Roy Wood Sellars

  • Critical Realism: A Study of the Nature and Conditions of Knowledge (Chicago: Rand-McNally Co., 1916).

    Wilfrid Sellars

  • "Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind," in Minnesota Studies in The Philosophy of Science, Vol. I: The Foundations of Science and the Concepts of Psychology and Psychoanalysis, edited by Herbert Feigl and Michael Scriven (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1956): 253-329. Science, Perception and Reality (Ridgeview Pub. Co., reprint, 1991).
  • (edited by Pedro V. Amaral ) The Metaphysics of Epistemology: Lectures by Wilfrid (Ridgeview Pub. Co., 1989).

    Sextus Empiricus

  • Outline of Pyrrhonism, Translated by R. G. Bury (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1933).

    Michael Slote

  • Reason and Scepticism (1970).

    J. F. Soltis Seeing, Knowing and Believing (London, 1966).

    Mark Steiner

  • Mathematical Knowledge (1975).

    Avrum Stroll

  • (ed.) Epistemology: New Essays in the Theory of Knowledge (1967).

    Marshall Swain

  • Reasons and Knowledge (1981).

    R. J. Swartz

  • (ed.) Perceiving, Sensing, and Knowing (New York: Anchor, 1965).

    Michael Tye

  • "The Adverbial Theory: A Defense of Sellars Against Jackson," Metaphilosophy 6 (1975): 136-143
  • "The Adverbial Approach to Visual Experience," The Philosophical Review 93, no. 2 (April 1984): 195-225.

    Peter Unger

  • Ignorance: A Case for Scepticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975).

    Thomas Vinci

  • "Sellars and the Adverbial Theory of Sensation." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 11 (1981): 199-217.

    Frederick Will

  • Induction and Justification (1973).

    Michael Williams

  • Groundless Belief (1977).

    Ludwig Wittgenstein

  • On Certainty (1969).

    Elizabeth Wolgast

  • Paradoxes of Knowledge (1978).

    A. D. Woozley

  • Theory of Knowledge (1949).

    G. von Wright

  • (ed.) Problems in the Theory of Knowledge (1972).