Philosophy of Liberal Education

Compiled by Andrew Chrucky
"The aim of liberal education is to create persons who have the ability and the disposition to try to reach agreements on matters of fact, theory, and actions through rational discussions." "The Aim of Liberal Education," DiText, September 1, 2003.

The following is a selected bibliography of books and articles discussing liberal education. Highlighted items are links to online texts.
A| B| C| D| E| F| G| H| I| J| K| L| M| N| O| P| Q| R| S| T| U| V| W| X| Y| Z

Abbott, Andrew

  • "Welcome to the University of Chicago," (Aims of Education Address), The University of Chicago, September 26, 2002.

    Adler, Mortimer J.

  • "The Crisis in Contemporary Education," The Social Frontier, February, 1939, Vol. V, No. 42, pp. 140-145.
  • How to Read a Book (Simon and Schuster, 1940).
  • "This Prewar Generation," Harper's Magazine (October, 1940). Reprinted in Reforming Education: the Opening of the American Mind.
  • "God and the Professors: Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion," (1941)
  • "In Defense of the Philosophy of Education," in Nelson B. Henry (ed.) Philosophy of Education (1942).
  • (and Milton Mayer) The Revolution in Education (University of Chicago Press, 1958).
  • The Paideia Proposal: An Educational Manifesto (New York, Macmillan, 1982).
  • Paideia Problems and Possibilities: A Consideration of the Questions Raised by The Paideia Proposal (New York, Macmillan, 1983).
  • "The Paideia Proposal: A Symposium," Harvard Educational Review, November, 1983, 377-411.
  • The Paideia Program: An Educational Syllabus (New York, Macmillan, 1984);
  • "Teaching, Learning, and Their Counterfeits" ("Teaching and Learning," appeared in From Parnassus (essays in honor of Jacques Barzun), ed. William R. Keylor and Dora B. Weiner (New York: Harper & Row, 1976); expanded in 1987.
  • Reforming Education: the Opening of the American Mind, edited by Geraldine Van Doren (Macmillan, 1988).

    Anastaplo, George ["Socrates of Chicago"]

  • "What is a Classic?" The Artist as Thinker: From Shakespeare to Joyce (Ohio University Press, 1983): 284-300.
  • "In re Allan Bloom: A Respectful Dissent," The Great Ideas Today, an Encyclopedia Britannica publication. 1988: 252-273. Reprinted in Essays on The Closing of the American Mind, ed. Robert L. Stone (Chicago Review Press, 1989): 267-284.
  • "The Allan Bloom Book and Education Today," (1989).

    Anderson, Charles W.

  • Prescribing the Life of the Mind : An Essay on the Purpose of the University, the Aims of Liberal Education, the Competence of Citizens, and the Cult (University of Wisconsin Press, 1993).


  • "The Seven Liberal Arts," The Catholic Encyclopedia (1907).

    Archambault, R.D.

  • (ed.) Philosophical Analysis and Education (London: Routledge, 1965).

    Aronowitz, Stanley

  • (and Henry Giroux) "Schooling, Culture and Literacy in the Age of Broken Dreams: A Review of Bloom and Hirsch," Harvard Educational Review 58, 2, 173-194.

    Axelrod, Paul

  • Values in Conflict (2002).

    Barrow, Robin

  • (and Ronald Woods) An Introduction to Philosophy of Education, 3d. ed. (Routledge, 1988).

    Barzun, Jacques

  • Teacher in America (Little Brown and Co., 1945).
  • The American University (Harper and Row, 1970).

    Bell, Daniel

  • The Reforming of General Education: The Columbia College Experience in its National Setting (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966).

    Bennett, William John

  • To Reclaim a Legacy: A Report on the Humanities in Higher Educaion (Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Humanities, 1984).

    Bestor, Arthur E.

  • Educational Wastelands: The Retreat From Learning in Our Schools (The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1953).
  • The Restoration of Learning (Knopf, 1955).

    Blanshard, Brand

  • (edited by Eugene Freeman) The Uses of a Liberal Education and Other Talks to Students (Open Court, LaSalle, 1973). Contents:

    Bloom, Allan

  • Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today's Students (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987).
    • Review by Martha Nussbaum, "Undemocratic Vistas," New York Review of Books, November 5, 1987.
    • Review by George Anastaplo, "In re Allan Bloom: A Respectful Dissent," The Great Ideas Today, an Encyclopedia Britannica publication. 1988: 252-273. Reprinted in Essays on The Closing of the American Mind, ed. Robert L. Stone (Chicago Review Press, 1989): 267-284.

    Booth, Wayne C.

  • (ed.) The Knowledge Most Worth Having (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967).
  • The Vocation of the Teacher (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).

    Botstein, Leon

  • "Wisdom Reconsidered: Robert Maynard Hutchins' The Higher Learning in America Revisited," in Philosophy for Education, ed. Seymour Fox (Jerusalem: Van Leer Jerusalem Foundation, 1983): 17-38.

    Boyer, John W.

  • (Edited and Introduction by John. W. Boyer) The Aims of Education: The College of the University of Chicago (University of Chicago, 1997).

    Brand, Myles

  • (moderator) Pro&Con (a TV program at Indiana University, WTIU)
      • "Revitalizing the Arts and Humanities;" guests: Herman Saatkamp, Dale McFadden, Rosemarie McGerr, Andrea Ciccarelli. Aired Jan. 11, 2001. High speed, Low speed
      • "Cultivating Humanity: Perspectives on Liberal Education;" guests: Martha Nussbaum, Jeffrey Isaac, Kent Owen. Taped Jan. 17, 2001 and aired on two shows (Jan. 25 and Feb. 8, 2001). Part 1: High speed, Low speed; Part 2: High speed, Low speed

    Brandon, E. P.

  • "The Philosophy in the Philosophy of Education," Teaching Philosophy 7 (1984): 1-15.
  • "Steps Towards a Logical Geography of Education," Course material for ED20H: Introduction to Argument in Education, UWIDITE and the Department of Educational Studies, UWI, Mona, prepared for 1992/93.
  • "The Unjustifiability of Education," Studies in Philosophy and Education, 14 (1995): 217-227. The journal reissued as P. Smeyers and J. Marshall (eds.) Philosophy and Education: Accepting Wittgenstein's Challenge (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1995): 93-103.
  • "Education and Secularization: Taking Philosophy of Education Seriously," Caribbean Journal of Education, 19 (1997): 227-238.

    Brann, Eva

  • The Paradoxes of Education in a Republic (University of Chicago Press, 1979).

    Bredo, Eric

  • "Cognitivism, Situated Cognition, and Deweyian Pragmatism," Philosophy of Education (1994).

    Brent, Allen

  • "Philosophy of Education Between Yearbooks," Teachers College Record, vol. 91 (1979): 130-41.

    Broudy, Harry S.

  • Building a Philosophy of Education, 2d. ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1961).
  • (and Michael J. Parsons, et al., (eds.)) Philosophy of Education. An Organization of Topics and Selected Sources (Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 1967).
  • "Philosophy of Education Between Yearbooks," Teachers College Record, vol. 91, pp. 130-41, 1979.

    Brumbaugh, Robert S.

  • (and Nathaniel M. Lawrence) Philosophers on Education: Six Essays on the Foundations of Western Thought (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1963).

    Bruner, Jerome S.

  • The Process of Education (Harvard University Press, 1960).

    Buchanan, Scott

  • The Doctrine of Signatures: A Defense of Theory in Medicine (University of Illinois Press, 1938, 1991). (". . . one of the first and most significant works of our time to show how closely connected the liberal arts are to clinical medicine.")
  • (ed., Harris Wofford, Jr.) Embers of the World (Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, Santa Barbara, California, 1970).

    Ann Halstead Burleigh

  • (ed.) Education in a Free Society (Liberty Press, 1973, 1978).

    Butts, R. Freeman

  • The College Charts Its Course: Historical Conceptions and Current Proposals (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1939).

    Carnochan, W. B.

  • The Battleground of the Curriculum: Liberal Education and American Education (Stanford University Press, 1993).

    Casement, William

  • The Great Canon Controversy: The Battle of the Books in Higher Education (Transaction Publishers, 1996).

    Cheney, Lynne

  • "50 Hours: A Core Curriculum for College Students," Humanities, the publication of the National Endowment for the Humanities, November/December, 1989.

    Childs, John L.

  • Education and Morals: An Experimentalist Philosophy of Education (Appleton, 1950).

    Chrucky, Andrew

  • "Trying to Understand the Program of Educational Reform through Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines," in Critical Thinking: Implications for Teaching and Teachers, ed. W. Oxman, M. Weinstein, N.M. Michelli (Upper Montclair: Institute for Critical Thinking, 1992).
  • "Defense of core cuts rests upon administration mythology," Chicago Weekly News, Nov. 18, 1999.
  • "Change in Course, Signaled by a Change in Courses," DiText, June 22, 2002. [A Reply to Don M. Randel's "Change is in course offerings, not in our course," University of Chicago Magazine, June 2002]
  • "The Aim of Liberal Education," DiText, September 1, 2003.
  • "Norman Finkelstein, DePaul, and U.S. Academia: Reductio Ad Absurdum of Centralized Universities," July 23, 2007.

    Cole, Brian Alair

  • "Hutchins and His Critics," (Ph. D. thesis, University of Maryland, 1976).

    Connor, W. R. (Director, The National Humanities Center)

  • "Liberal Arts Education in the Twenty-First Century," (Keynote remarks to the American Academy for Liberal Education), May 225, 1998.

    Darkey, William

  • (ed. et al) Three Dialogues on Liberal Education (St. John's College Press, 1979).

    Dawson, Christopher

  • The Crisis in Western Education (Image Books, 1965).

    Derrick, Christopher

  • Escape From Skepticism: Liberal Education As If Truth Mattered (La Salle, IL, Sherwood Sugden, 1977).

    Desan, Philippe

  • (ed.) Engaging the Humanities at the University of Chicago (University of Chicago, 1995).

    Dewey, John

  • Moral Principles in Education (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1909).
  • Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (New York: Free Press, 1916).
  • "Rationality in Education," The Social Frontier, December, 1936. Vol. lII, No. 21, pp. 71-73.
  • "President Hutchins' Proposals To Remake Higher Education," The Social Frontier, February, 1937. Vol. IIl, No. 22, pp. 103-104.
  • "The Higher Learning in America," The Social Frontier, March, 1937, Vol. III, No. 24, pp. 167-169.
  • Experience and Education (New York: Macmillan, 1938).

    Drake, William E.

  • (ed.) Source for Intellectual Foundations of Modern Education (Merrill Books, 1967).

    Ducasse, Curt J.

  • "The Place of Philosophy in a University Education," Brown Alumni Monthly, Jan. 1930: 1-6.
  • The Relation of Philosophy to General Education, General Education Board of the Rockefeller Foundation, mimeographed, 1932.
  • "Are the Humanities Worth Their Keep?" American Scholar 6, No. 4, 1937.
  • "Liberal Education and the College Curriculum," The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. XV, No. 1, January, 1944: pp. 1-10.
  • (and Brand Blanshard, Charles W. Hendel, Artur E. Murphy, Max C. Otto) Philosophy in American Education: Its Tasks and Opportunities (New York: Harper's, 1945).
  • "The Colleges, Liberal Education, & Philosophy," Chapter 5 in Philosophy in American Education, 1945. pp. 118-142.
  • "Graduate Preparation for Teaching," Journal of Higher Education 19, No. 9, 1948.
  • "What Education is, in the most inclusive sense," Lecture Notes for Philosophy of Education course, c. 1952. [in archives of Brown University, John Hay Library]
  • "Philosophy, Education and the Nature of Man," Journal of the Phi Beta Kappa Society 31, No. 4, 1952.
  • "On the Function and Nature of the Philosophy of Education," Harvard Educational Review 26, 1956.
  • "What Can Philsophy Contribute to Educational Theory?" Harvard Educational Review 28, 1958.
  • "Sanity in Education," Educational Summary, Crofts, Sept. 12, 1958.

    Ennis, Robert H.

  • “A Conception of Rational Thinking,” in Philosophy of Education 1979, ed. Jerrold Coombs (Normal, Illinois: Philosophy of Education Society, 1980): 3-30.
  • “A Taxonomy of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities,” in Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice, ed. Joan Boykoff Baron and Robert J. Sternberg (New York: W.H. Freeman & Co., 1987): 9-26.

    Erskine, John

  • My Life as a Teacher (J.B. Lippincott Co., 1948).

    Farnham, Nicholas H.

  • (and Adam Yarmolinsky, ed.) Rethinking Liberal Education (Oxford University Press, 1996). "This work looks at the requirements of liberal education for the next century and strategies for getting there. The contributors, including Leon Botstein, Ernest Boyer, Howard Gardner, Stanley Katz, Bruce Kimball, Peter LyMan, Susan Resneck Pierce, Adam Yarmolinsky, and Frank Wong, put forward a number of proposals concerning how better to connect the curriculum and organization of liberal arts colleges with today's challenging economic and social realities, and argue that the curriculum could be made more flexible without loss of integrity."

    Farrar, Frederic William

  • (ed.) Essays on a liberal education (1867). On the history of classical education - C.S. Parker; The theory of classical education - H. Sidgwick; Liberal education in universities - J. Seeley; On teaching by means of grammar - E.E. Bowen; On Greek and Latin verse-composition as a general branch of education - F.W. Farrar; On teaching natural science in schools - J.M. Wilson; The teaching of English - J.W.H. Hales; On the education of the reasoning faculties - W. Johnson; On the present social results of classical education - Lord Houghton. -- [pdf file]

    Ferrer Guardia, Francisco (1859-1909)

  • The Origin and Ideals of the Modern School (1913). -- [pdf file] Author:

    Finn, Chester E.

  • (and Diane Ravitch, and Holley Roberts, editors) Challenge to the Humanities (New York, Holmes and Meier, 1985).

    Flexner, Abraham

  • Universities: American, English, German (New York: Oxford University Press, 1930),

    Foerster, Norman

  • The Future of the Liberal College (Arno Press, 1938, 1969).

    Fox, Seymour

  • (ed.) Philosophy for Education (Jerusalem: Van Leer Jerusalem Foundation, 1983).

    Frankena, William K.

  • Three Historical Philosophies of Education (Chicago: Scott, Foresman, 1965).
  • "Education," in Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas, ed. Philip P. Wiener, Vol. II (New York, Charles Scribner's Sons: 1973).

    Freeman, Helen

  • "On the Nature of Philosophy of Education and its Practice in Colleges and Departments of Education or 'Does Philosophy of Education leave everything as it is?'," Education for Teaching, no. 98, 1975: 37-48.

    Fuller, Timothy

  • (ed.) The Voice of Liberal Learning: Michael Oakshott on Education (Yale University Press, 1989).

    Gideonse, Harry D.

  • The Higher Learning in a Democracy: A Reply to President Hutchins' Critique of the American University (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1937). Introduction
  • Against the Running Tide: Selected Essays on Education and the Free Society (New York: Twayne, 1967).

    Gillies, Francis

  • "Philosophy and the 'Philosophy of Education' Debate," Education for Teaching, no. 101, pp. 50-56, 1976.

    Gless, Darryl L.

  • (and Barbara H. Smith, ed.) The Politics of Liberal Education (The South Atlantic Quarterly, Winter 90, Vol. 89, No. 1, 1991).

    Goldman, Alvin I.

  • "Education and Social Epistemology," Philosophy of Education (1995).

    Goldwin, Robert A.

  • (ed.) Higher Education and Modern Democracy: The Crisis of the Few and Many (Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1967).

    Grant, Gerald

  • (and David Reisman) The Perpetual Dream: Reform and Experiment in the American College (University of Chicago Press, 1978).

    Gruber, Frederick C.

  • Foundations for a Philosophy of Education (Thomas Y. Cromwell, 1961).

    Hardie, C. D.

  • Truth and Fallacy in Educational Theory (Cambridge University Press, 1942).

    Hare, Peter H.

  • (and Edward H. Madden) "Ethics and Education," Ch. 7 of Causing, Perceiving and Believing: An Examination of the Philosophy of C. J. Ducasse (Reidel, 1975).

    Hare, R. M.

  • "A School for Philosophers," Ratio, II, No. 2 (1960). Reprinted in R. M. Hare, Essays on Philosophical Method (University of California Press, 1972). [What Hare describes in this essay as an education for philosophers, I would describe as a liberal arts education. A.C.]

    Harper, Henry

  • "Literacy and the State: A Comparison of Hirsch, Rosenblatt, and Giroux" English Quarterly 22, 3-4, 169-175.

    Harvard Committee

  • Harvard Committee Report: General Education in a Free Society (The University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1945).

    Harvard Educational Review XXVI, no. 2, 1956.

    Hirsch, Eric Donald

  • Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987).

    Hirst, Paul

  • "Liberal Education and the Nature of Knowledge," in Philosophical Analysis and Education, ed. R.D. Archambault (London: Routledge, 1965).
  • (and R. S. Peters) The Logic of Education (Humanities, 1971).

    Hofstadter, Richard

  • Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (New York, Vintage Books, 1963).

    Hogben, Lancelot

  • The Retreat from Reason (1936).

    Hook, Sidney

  • "A Critical Appraisal of the St. John's College Curriculum," The New Leader, May 26 and June 4, 1944. Reprinted as an appendix in Education for Modern Man.
  • Education for Modern Man: A New Perspective (New York: The Dial Press, 1946). Chapter 3: The Nature of Man [Criticism of Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler, Fulton Sheen, Mark van Doren]
  • "The Scope of Philosophy of Education," Harvard Educational Review 26 (1956).

    Howe, John

  • (and others) "A Liberal Education Agenda for the 1990s and Beyond on the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota: The Final Report of the Twin Cities Campus Task Force on Liberal Education," May 6, 1991.

    Hutchins, Robert Maynard -- Short biography of Robert M(aynard) Hutchins

  • [Adam Kissel's Works of Robert Maynard Hutchins (website)]
  • "The Issue In The Higher Learning." The International Journal of Ethics, January 1934: 175-184.
  • No Friendly Voice (Chicago University Press, 1936). [selections]
  • The Higher Learning in America (Yale University Press, 1936). [ Preface to the Paperbound Edition (1961)
  • "Make It a Habit," Commonweal, April 22, 1938.
  • Education For Freedom (Louisiana State University Press, 1943). [selections]
  • St. Thomas and the World State (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1949).
  • "The Idea of a College," Measure 1 (Fall 1950): 363-371.
  • The Democratic Dilemma (Uppsala, Sweden: Almquist & Wiksells Boktyckeri, 1951).
  • The Great Conversation: The Substance of a Liberal Education (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1952).
  • The University of Utopia (University of Chicago, 1953). [selections]
  • The Conflict in Education in a Democratic Society (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1953).
  • Freedom, Education, and the Fund: Essays and Addresses, 1946-1956 (New York: Meridian Books, 1956).
  • Some Observations on American Education (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1956).
  • Freedom, Education, and the Fund: Essays and Addresses, 1946-1956 (New York: Meridian Books, 1956).
  • The Learning Society (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968).
  • Zuckerlandl! (New York: Grove Press, 1968).

    Hutchinson, Dennis J.

  • "The Aims of Education," Rockefeller Chapel (University of Chicago), Sept. 19, 1999.

    Johnston, Herbert

  • A Philosophy of Education (McGraw-Hill, 1963).

    Kant, Immanuel

  • Kant on Education (trans. by Annette Churton), 1899.

    Kass, Amy Apfel

  • "Radical Conservatives for a Liberal Education," (Ph. D. thesis, John Hopkins University, 1973).

    Kenaw, Setargew

  • "The Idea of a University and the Increasing Pressures of Utilitarianism: A Critical Reflection on Addis Ababa University," The Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 1, No. 1, December 2003.

    Kern, Andrew

  • (and Gene Edward Veith, Jr.) Classical Education: The Movement Sweeping America (Capiral Research Center, 2001).

    Kerr, Clark

  • The Uses of the University (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).

    Kimball, Bruce A.

  • Orators and Philosophers: A History of the Idea of Liberal Education (New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1995).
  • (and others) The Condition of American Liberal Education: Pragmatism and a Changing Tradition (New York: The College Board, 1995).

    Kimball, Roger

  • Tenured Radicals: How Politics Has Corrupted Our Higher Education (Harper and Row, 1990).

    Kleinig, J.

  • Philosophical Issues in Education (London: Croom Helm, 1982).

    Knox, Bernard

  • The Oldest Dead White European Males and Other Reflections on the Classics (Norton, 1993).

    Levi, Edward H.

  • Point of View: Talks on Education (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969).

    Levine, Donald N.

  • "Challenging Certain Myths About the 'Hutchins' College," The University of Chicago Magazine 51 (Winter, 1985): 36-39.
  • "The Idea of the University, Take One: On the Genius of This Place," Presented at the Idea of the University Colloquium, November 8, 2000.

    Lewis, C.S.

  • The Abolition of Man: How Education Develops Man's Sense of Morality (New York, Macmillan, 1947).

    Locke, John (1632-1704)

  • Some Thoughts Concerning Education, 1692.

    MacAloon, John J.

  • (ed.) General Education in the Social Sciences: Centennial Reflections on the College of the University of Chicago (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).

    Magaziner, Ira

  • (and others) "Draft of a Working Paper for Education at Brown University," mimeographed, 1968.

    Maritain, Jacques

  • Education at the Crossroads (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1943).

    Marsh, Christopher D.

  • "An Essay on the American Teacher and the Restoration of Society," (2001).

    Martin, Everett Dean

  • The Meaning of a Liberal Education (Norton, 1926). -- [pdf file]

    Martin, J.

  • "The Ideal of the Educated Person," in Philosophy of Education, 1981. Ed. Daniel R. Denicola (Normal, Illinois: Philosophy of Education Society, 1982).

    Maxwell, Nicholas

  • From Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution in the Aims and Methods of Education, 1984.

    McArthur, Benjamin

  • "Revisiting Hutchins and the Higher Learning in America," History of Higher Education Annual 7 (1987): 18-19.

    McCambridge, Thomas R. Liberal Education and American Schooling, Ph.D. Dissertation (UCLA, 1997).

    McCarthy, Christine

  • "Why be Critical? (or Rational, or Moral?): On the Justification of Critical Thinking," Philosophy of Education (1992).

    McClellan, James E.

  • Philosophy of Education. Prentice-Hall, 1976.

    McArthur, Benjamin

  • "Revisiting Hutchins and The Higher Learning in America," History of Higher Education Annual 7 (1987): 18-19.

    McKeon, Richard

  • "The Nature and Teaching of the Humanities," Journal of General Education 3 (1949): 290-303.

    McPeck, John E.

  • Critical Thinking and Education ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981).
  • (ed.) Teaching Critical Thinking (New York: Routledge, 1990).

    Mearsheimer, John J. "The Aims of Education Address," 10/23/97

    Meiklejohn, Alexander

  • The Liberal College (Marshall Jones, 1920; Arno Press, 1969).
  • The Experimental College (Washington D.C.: Seven Locks Press, 1932).
  • Education Between Two Worlds (Harper and Brothers, 1942).
  • "A Reply to John Dewey." Fortune, January, 1945.

    Meynell, Hugo

  • "What is to be Done about the Philosophy of Education?," Education for Teaching, no. 99, 1976: 28-34.

    Morris, Van Cleve

  • Philosophy and the American School: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (Houghton Mifflin Co., 1961).

    Murphy, W. M.

  • (and D. J. R. Bruckner) The Idea of the University of Chicago (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1976).

    Myers, J. T.

  • (and Y. Pai, eds.) Philosophic Problems in Education (L. B. Lippincott, 1967).

    National Commission on Excellence in Education

  • A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983).

    Neilson, William A.

  • "What is the job of our colleges?" New York Times Magazine, March 7, 1937, pp. 1-2, 25.

    Nettleship, R. L.

  • The Theory of Education in Plato's Republic (London, Oxford, 1935).

    Newell, L. Jackson

  • (and Katherine C. Reynolds, ed.) Maverick Colleges: Ten Notable Experiments in American Undergraduate Education (Salt Lake City, Utah: The University of Utah, 1993).

    Newman, John Henry Cardinal

  • The Idea of a University (1854).

    Norris, Stephen P.

  • “Thinking about Critical Thinking: Philosophers Can’t Go It Alone,” in Teaching Critical Thinking, ed. John E. McPeck (New York: Routledge, 1990): 67-74.
  • (ed.) The Generalizability of Critical Thinking (New York: Teachers College Press, 1992).
  • "Bachelors, Buckyballs, and Ganders: Seeking Analogoues for Definitions of "Critical Thinker"," Philosophy of Education (1992).

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

  • "Undemocratic Vistas," New York Review of Books, November 5, 1987.
  • Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education (Harvard University Press, 1997). -- Review by Jay Tolson
    • "Cultivating Humanity: Perspectives on Liberal Education," Pro&Con (a TV program at Indiana University, moderated by Myles Brand, the President of IU); guests: Martha Nussbaum, Jeffrey Isaac, Kent Owen. Taped Jan. 17, 2001 and aired on two shows (Jan. 25 and Feb. 8, 2001). Part 1: High speed, Low speed; Part 2: High speed, Low speed
  • "Liberal Education and Global Responsibility," (A talk for a Symposium at Carleton College, in honor of the Inauguration of Robert A. Oden, Jr. as President, October 25, 2002)

    Oakley, Francis

  • Community of Learning: The American College and The Liberal Arts Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

    Oakshott, Michael

  • (Timothy Fuller, ed.) The Voice of Liberal Learning: Michael Oakshott on Education (Yale University Press, 1989).

    Pai, Y.

  • (and J. T. Myers, eds.) Philosophic Problems in Education (L. B. Lippincott, 1967).

    Paul, Richard

  • Critical Thinking (Rohnert Park, California: CCTMC, 1990).

    Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan

  • The Idea of the University: A Re-examination (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1992).

    Peters, R. S.

  • (ed.) The Concept of Education (London, Routledge & K. Paul; New York, Humanities P., 1967).
  • (and P. H. Hirst) The Logic of Education (New York : Humanities Press, 1971).
  • (ed.) The Philosophy of Education (London: Oxford University Press, 1973).
  • Essays on Educators (London; Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1981).

    Phenix, Philip H.

  • Philosophy of Education (Henry Holt, 1958).
  • Education and the Common Good: A Moral Philosophy of the Curriculum (Harper & Row, 1961).

    Phillips, D.C.

  • "Bredo, Dewey, and the Pessimistic Method: A Response," Philosophy of Education (1994).
  • "Scylla, Charybdis, and Social Epistemology: A Response to Alvin Goldman," Philosophy of Education (1995).

    Pilley, John

  • "The Liberal Arts and Progressive Education," The Social Frontier, April 1939, Vol. V, No. 44, pp. 211-216.

    Pippin, Robert

  • "Liberation and the Liberal Arts: The Aims of Education," Sept. 1, 2000.

    Postman, Neil

  • (and Charles Weingartner), Teaching as a subversive activity (New York, Delacorte Press, 1969).
  • "My Graduation Speech"

    Pratte, Richard

  • "Analytic Philosophy of Education: A Historical Perspective," Teachers College Record, vol. 81, 1979: 145-65.

    Price, Kingsley

  • "Philosophy of Education, History of," in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vol. VI (New York: Macmillan and Free Press, 1967).

    Proctor, Robert

  • Defining the Humanities: How Rediscovering the Tradition Can Improve our Schools (Indiana University Press, 1988, 1998).

    Purpel, David E.

  • The Moral & Spiritual Crisis in Education: A Curriculum for Justice and Compassion in Education (Granby, Mass.: Bergin & Garvey, 1989).

    Raaflaub, Kurt

  • "Democracy, Oligarchy, and the Concept of the 'free citizen'," Political Theory II (1983): 517-44.

    Riesman, David

  • (and G. Grant) The Perpetual Dream: Reform and Experiment in the American College (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).

    Ryan, Alan

  • Liberal Anxieties and Liberal Education (Hill & Wang Pub., 1998).

    Ravitch, Harold

  • "Robert Maynard Hutchins: Philosopher of Education," (Ph. D. thesis, University of Southern California, 1980).

    Rousseau, Jean Jacques

  • Emile, or On Education, 1762.

    Russell, Bertrand

  • On Education, 1926.
  • Education and the Good Life, 1954.

    Santayana, George

  • "Liberalism and Culture," in Norman Henfrey, Selected Critical Writings of George Santayana: Volume 2 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1968).

    Scheffler, Israel

  • The Language of Education (Springfield, Ill., Thomas, 1960).
  • Conditions of Knowledge: An Introduction to Epistemology and Education (Phoenix ed. Published: Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1978, c1965).
  • (ed.) Philosophy and Education; Modern Readings, 2d ed. (Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 1966).
  • Reason and Teaching (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973).
  • Of Human Potential: An Essay in the Philosophy of Education (London; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985).
  • (and V. A. Howard) Work, Education, and Leadership: Essays in the Philosophy of Education (New York : P. Lang, 1995).

    Schofield, Harry

  • The Philosophy of Education: An Introduction (George Allen and Unwin, 1972).

    Schwab, Joseph J.

  • College Curriculum and Student Protest (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1969).
  • Science, Curriculum, and Liberal Education: Selected Essays (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1978).

    Searle, John R.

  • The Campus War; A Sympathetic Look at the University in Agony (New York, World Pub. Co., 1971).
  • "The Storm Over the University," New York Review of Books, December 6, 1990.
    'The Storm Over the University': An Exchange, New York Review of Books, Feb. 14, 1991
    'The Storm Over the University': A Further Exchange, New York Review of Books, May 16, 1991
  • "The Case for a Traditional Liberal Education," Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, n13 (Aut 1996): 91-98. Abstract: Examines the controversy over what some consider liberal education's shortcoming in a multicultural society: that it is predominantly an exclusive white male, Europe and North American centered curriculum. Explores assumptions held by those supporting liberal education as it is currently taught and by those who believe it should not ignore the contributions of other cultures and ethnic groups.

    Siegel, Harvey

  • Relativism Refuted (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1987).
  • Educating Reason: Rationality, Critical Thinking, Education (London: Routledge, 1988).
  • "Gimme that Old-Time Enlightenment Meta-Narrative," Philosophy of Education (1993).
  • Rationality Redeemed? Further Dialogues on an Educational Ideal (London: Routledge, 1997).

    Sinaiko, Herman

  • Reclaiming the Canon: Essays on Philosophy, Poetry, and History (Yale University Press, 1998).

    Smith, Barbara H.

  • "Cult-Lit: Hirsch, Literacy and the 'National Culture,'" The South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 89, No. 1 (Winter 1990).
  • (and Darryl L. Gless, ed.) The Politics of Liberal Education, The South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 89, No. 1 (Winter 1990).

    Smith, Othanel

  • (and Robert H. Ennis (eds.)) Language and Concepts in Education (B. Chicago, Rand McNally, 1961).

    Smith, J. Winfree

  • A Search for the Liberal College; The Beginning of the St. John's Program (St. John's College Press, 1983).

    Smith, Page

  • Killing the Spirit: Higher Education in America (New York, N.Y.: Viking, 1990).

    Sniegoski, Stephen J.

  • "William Torrey Harris: Nineteenth Century Proponent of Academic Excellence" in The University Bookman, XXVII, No. 3.

    Soltis, Jonas F.

  • An Introduction to the Analysis of Educational Concepts (Addison-Wesley, 1968).

    Stone, Geoffrey R. "Academic Freedom and Responsibility" (The Aims of Education Address), September 24, 1995.

    Stone, Robert L.

  • (ed.) Essays on The Closing of the American Mind (Chicago Review Press, 1989).

    Strauss, Leo

  • "What Is Liberal Education?" An Address Delivered at the Tenth Annual Graduation Exercises of the Basic Program of Liberal Education for Adults, June 6, 1959.
  • "Liberal Education and Mass Democracy," in Higher Education and Modern Democracy: The Crisis of the Few and Many, ed. Robert A. Goldwin (Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1967), pp. 73-96.

    Suppes, Patrick

  • "The Aims of Education," Philosophy of Education Yearbook, 1995.
  • "Can there be a normative philosophy of education?" In G.L. Newsome, Jr. (Ed.), Philosophy of Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education series, Proceedings of the 24th annual meeting of the Philosophy of Education Society--Santa Monica, April 7-l0, 1968, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University, 1-12. Reprinted in J.P. Strain (Ed.), Modern Philosophies of Education. New York: Random House, 1971, 277-288.

    Thomas, Russell

  • The Search for a Common Learning: General Education, 1800-1960 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962).

    Tom, Alan R.

  • Teaching as a Moral Craft (Longman Inc., 1984).

    Ulich, Robert

  • Philosophy of Education (American Book Company, 1961).

    Van Doren, Mark

  • Liberal Education (Henry Holt and Co., 1944).

    Varco, Lynn

  • (with contributions by W. Joshua Lucas) "The Ultimate Despair of Liberal Education," The Chicago Maroon, February 16, 1993.

    Veblen, Thorsten

  • The Higher Learning in America: A Memorandum of the Conduct of Universities by Businessmen (1918).

    Veith, Jr., Gene Edward

  • (and Andrew Kern) Classical Education: The Movement Sweeping America (Capiral Research Center, 2001).

    Ward, F. Champion

  • (ed.) The Idea and Practice of General Education: An Account of the College of The University of Chicago (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, (1950) 1992).

    Warnock, Mary

  • Schools of Thought. Faber, 1977.

    Watson, JoAnne M.

  • (and Rex P. Stevens, ed.) Perspectives on Liberal Education: Pioneers and Pallbearers (Mercer University Press, 1982).

    Wegener, Charles

  • Liberal Education and the Modern University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).

    Wegener, Frank C.

  • The Organic Philosophy of Education (Wm. C. Brown, 1957).

    Weinstein, Mark

  • "Rationalist Hopes and Utopian Visions," Philosophy of Education (1993).

    Whitehead, Alfred North

  • The Organization of Thought: Educational and Scientific (London: William and Norgate, 1917). Chapter 1: "The Aims of Education."

    Williams, Bernard

  • "Philosophy," in Yudkin, Michael, ed., General Education. Penguin, 1969.

    Wilshire, Bruce W.

  • The Moral Collapse of the University: Professionalism, Purity, and Alienation (Albany : State University of New York Press, 1990).

    Wolff, Robert Paul

  • The Ideal of the University (Beacon Press, 1969).

    Woods, Ronald

  • (and Robin Barrow) An Introduction to Philosophy of Education, 3d. ed.

    Woody, Thomas

  • Liberal Education for Free Men (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951).

    Wright, Matthew D.

  • "The Changing Idea of a University: American Higher Education and the Illiberal Use of Knowledge" (2001).

    Links to Some Websites:
    Midwest Philosophy of Education Society
    Philosophy of Education Society
    Philosophy of Education, a publication of the Philosophy of Education Society
    Five Philosophies of Education
    American Academy for Liberal Education
    Liberal Education, a quarterly journal of the Association of American Colleges and Universities
    Materials on the Philosophy of Education
    The Teagle Foundation: Resources page